Athens – Church of Agioi Theodoroi

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Crossing Odos Dragatsaniou, in the end stands the attractive medieval church of Agioi Theodoroi (St. Theodore), built on the site of a church founded in the ninth century, but in its present form dating from between 1050 and 1075. This small cruciform church with its high narrow dome, multiple roofs that lend it an air of rhythmic grace, narrow mullioned windows and decorated central door surmounted by arches, is a precious gem of eleventh century Byzantine architecture.

The earliest form of Byzantine churches was that of the basilica, a long rectangle divided by two or four ranges of columns into three or five naves. Later, during the 11th and 12th centuries, the plan changed to that of a Greek cross within a square, dominated by a dome constructed in brick and often combined with one or more subsidiary domes. The exterior walls consist of square-cut stone with thin brick surrounds and are enriched by bands of decoration, carving and the use of color. Few of these churches were large. Apart from St. Theodore, typical examples are the churches of Kapnikarea and St. Eleutherios.

The glory of the Byzantine church lies not so much in the architecture as to the ethereal beauty of its mosaics or frescoes. From the center of the principal dome Christ looks down upon the faithful and below Him are the Apostles. The Virgin appears in the half dome, while around the sanctuary are symbolic figures and emblems connected with the Eucharist. On the West wall opposite the chancel is the Last Judgement. Colored marble and similar material in the lower walls add to the resplendent beauty of the interior.

The liturgy of the Greek Orthodox Church requires separation of the altar from the laity. The altar is placed in a chancel screened from the congregation by the iconostasis, i.e. the screen dividing the sanctuary from the church proper. This is adorned with pictures of Christ, the Virgin, and Saints, and generally has three doors, the curtains of which are lowered while Mass is being celebrated. The chancel is flanked by the Prothesis, where the bread and wine for the Eucharist are prepared, and by the Diakonikon, or vestry.

In St. Theodore one can also notice the influence of the East on Byzantine art, which was prominent in the period from the mid-9th to mid-11th centuries, when Byzantine artists used a variety of Oriental motifs in their designs. It is probable that the design of pseudo-kufic characters (the script perfected during the 7th century by calligraphers in the city of Kafa, in present-day Iraq) that decorate the terracotta panel below the windows of the facade was inspired by the work of Arab craftsmen.

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An Unsecured Loan May Make Life Just a Little Bit Easier

There can come a time while in the lifestyles of all individuals once they need more money. You will find a number of factors behind the need for an additional chunk of dollars. Maybe you may need some unexpected emergency home maintenance – or that the sounds the refrigerator appeared to be generating eventually ceased in addition to the kitchen appliance itself. Maybe your kids has a opportunity to make a once a lifetime trip. You will be miserable if she couldn’t go because of not enough money. Auto repairs never ever pick a great time. It may be you will need extra money to go back on your way.

Occasionally men and women be reluctant in acquiring the cash they desire because they are working hard to pay off his or her debt. Thinking about adding to their credit card debt can be just depressing. Even so, cash loans don’t need to bring about precisely the same scenario as your revolving credit. Nevertheless, when you have any concerns in any way, please see here for loan advice. These kind of financial loans is usually a good thing. They even allow you to repair service bad credit while possibly giving you inspiration to get rid of further debt.

You could think that just individuals with outstanding credit score can get these fast cash loans – it is extremely the other. For this reason these plans are really great for people who might have received difficulties in the past. In the event you meet easy prerequisites you’ll be able to make application for a loan like these. If you’re over eighteen, possess a constant regular job, a ssn, and possess a banking account, you’ll be able to put on. Discover any additional info here. After you have applied, there is certainly simply a quick wait to get approved. The best factor is definitely that there’s virtually no waiting for your cash. The money is going to be transferred directly in your standard bank. For those who have efficiently paid back this particular loan, it’s going to be a whole lot easier to discover the up coming one – and next time you can even want more income. If you are the need for a little more funds, don’t forget these kind of simple to qualify for personal loans.

One Has More Options When You Work at Home

Quite a few people choose to work solely from the comfort of their homes, both via the web, or by way of one that is perhaps the more standard routes of engaging in self-employment. The reasons why individuals decide to have a home business are generally different. Several see this like a viable choice if they’re unable to find work within an place they enjoy that will pay sufficiently to provide the money needed for them in addition to their families. Other individuals will feel that a task they perhaps begun as a hobby came to be therefore so rewarding that this converted into a home-based job. Then others purposely picked the route as it lets them be home more with regards to their young children or offer care regarding an aging father or mother.

Most learn this here now: that linked to self-employment is the fact numerous home-based business owners will be able to make money accomplishing some thing they’d prefer. As well as cottage industry options like dessert cooking, creating jewelry, customized regular sewing, and the like, some of the best at your home opportunities that people appreciate belong to the region of service-based industries. These include grass treatment, housekeeping services, canine grooming, computer repair and maintenance, web design, plus much more. Somebody who operates from your own home normally likes far more freedom than the man or woman that must work in the corporate atmosphere, and can halt to let the puppy out, get dinner going, or squeeze in a load involving routine laundry, small luxuries not available to many people.

Make Sure Your Home Is Actually Prepared For The Winter By Examining The Roof Top

When the winter season arrives, having a roof that’s in good shape is important. Snow is heavy and thus can easily break through an already harmed rooftop, triggering a number of difficulties for the homeowner. It really is a good idea for the homeowner to have their rooftop checked out prior to winter to be able to ensure it will be in good condition.

A rooftop that needs repairs really should be fixed quickly, well before winter starts. This way, the homeowner is able to be sure the rain and snow cannot get inside of their home and thus cause further destruction. It’s typically much less expensive to proceed to correct a rooftop at this point than to hold back until the main problem is much worse. Usually, the house owner can’t discover a lot of the small problems with the rooftop without climbing up in order to have a look. For this reason a specialist assessment is so beneficial. The professional could ensure virtually any small concerns are dealt with speedily before the weather will cause them to develop to much bigger concerns.

If you have not had your rooftop checked out fairly recently, now is the time to accomplish it. Make contact with an expert now to have your rooftop checked out and also repaired or even in order to inquire about a re roof before the winter season shows up in the event you know there are currently several issues with the rooftop.

The Acropolis – Athens, Goddess Athena

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Archaeologists tell us that the original city of Athens was situated on the Acropolis. Even in classical times, the Athenians still referred to this area as “the City.” The city of Athens and its patron goddess emerge into the light of history as inseparably coupled. In Mycenaean times each city was built around a central palace, and each palace was under the protection of its patron goddess. Athena was the goddess of the palace on the Acropolis. The names of the city and its goddess are essentially the same: Athena was Athens, and Athens was Athena. She was “The Athenian.” The ancient Athenians seem to have exhibited, during much of their history, precisely those virtues which they traditionally attributed to her. This may be because, when the Athenians imagined their goddess, they did so in their own image.

According to the myth, Zeus fell in love with a beautiful titaness, Metis (“Cunning Intelligence”). Although she repeatedly changed her shape to avoid his unwelcome attentions, as was his way, he persisted. In the end he caught up with her and raped her.

An oracle then announced that Metis would bear Zeus two children: first a daughter then, a son, and the son would be mightier than his father. Just as Zeus had once overthrown and dispossessed his own father, Chronos, so he was destined in his turn, to be overthrown by his own son. In a desperate attempt to avoid sharing his father’s fate, Zeus gave Metis a potion of drugged ambrosia, and then swallowed her whole.

Some time afterwards a terrible headache came upon him. In great pain, he sought the advice of Hermes, whose only suggestion was that Hephaestos, the smith of the gods, should open his head in order to allow the cause of his pain to escape. Zeus was so desperate that even this drastic remedy was preferable to doing nothing, and Hephaestos was duly summoned to cleave open Zeus’ head with his mighty axe. When he did so, to the astonishment of all the immortals, Athena sprang out with a great war-cry, fully-formed, wearing armour and bearing arms.

Zeus’ daughter not only became the patron of many arts at that time normally considered masculine preserves, such as ceramics, she was also credited with a distinctly unfeminine warlike nature. When the Olympian gods were faced with a titanic struggle against the giants, Athena played a major role in the war, defeating the giant Enkelados in single combat. She came to be depicted not merely as a virgin goddess, but, as an ancient Roman writer put it, as a virago: as a female capable of playing a leading role in a world dominated by men.

It came to be said that the reason for the birth of this goddess lay in a wager between Zeus and his consort, Hera, as to which of them could generate the better progeny entirely alone and unaided. By herself, Hera managed to produce only the crippled god, Hephaestos and a monster; while Zeus was able to bring forth, in Athena, one of the greatest of the Immortals.

This seems to have been a picturesque reference to a widespread belief, which was to appear later in the works of the philosopher Aristotle: that the father alone is responsible for generating his children, and for providing them with their inherited characteristics, and that their mother affords them nothing more than a temporary shelter and sustenance in her womb during her pregnancy.

This is a striking example of the strong climate of male chauvinism which dominated the early classical period in ancient Greece, which is very evident in myth and legend.

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What May You Easily Afford to Put Down on a Home?

Quite than paying attention on typically the largest personal loan volume anyone could quite possibly get coming from a loan or perhaps residence equity range of credit score, this technique focuses about the sum that pleasantly fits your own personal spending budget. This particular component of the property-buying practice is all about spending what you can as opposed to just what a person ought to. This specific short article tries to determine the deposit component of buying a three bedroom house for sale.

Should vs. could possibly

Doing work out some sort of month-to-month home budget (one that contains any more expenses which come along with buying a home with no-deposit) could tell an individual what anyone should use. This particular technique helps a person find a good amount which comfortably suits your price range, rather when compared with stretching your own budget in order to fit the particular loan. Make use of the web to be able to get any full image of your own personal pre-tax cash flow, your present debt bills (such while credit credit cards, car loan products and rents, or pupil loans), your own personal savings, as well as how some sort of new or perhaps additional mortgage payment might fit in to your monetary picture.

Right after you’ve established your price range

While comparing diverse loans or even lines involving credit, help make sure anyone clearly know their words and would certainly feel comfy with the actual monthly bills throughout the actual life regarding the personal loan or series of credit history. And in case a loan provider says anyone can pay for more compared to what you may have budgeted, significantly consider whether or not this would likely be any stretch regarding you, and also don’t be reluctant to stay to any smaller sum. If the lender attempts to force you directly into accepting some sort of loan or perhaps monthly settlement you are usually not secure with, select a diverse property managers association.

Anyone may additionally want in order to consider prequalification. While that doesn’t offer you some sort of loan determination or ensure, it’s some sort of good very first step in order to see typically the amount and also type associated with loan the lender can offer anyone. Finally, retain in head how very much you can easily afford to be able to borrow with out putting the actual rest involving your monetary plans in hold. This specific can support you construct a more powerful future, due to the fact you’ll end up being better well informed and far better equipped for you to be any successful home owner. It really is recommended you read this posting to find out more.

Ancient History – Athens

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Archaeologists have found evidence that Athens has been inhabited from at least the fifth millennium BC. The site would have been attractive to early settlers for a number of reasons: its location in the midst of productive agricultural terrain; its closeness to the coast and the natural safe harbour of Piraeus; the existence of defensible high ground, the Acropolis (from akron and polis, or ‘city on the high ground’); and the proximity of a natural source of water on the north-west side of the Acropolis.

Traces of Mycenaean fortifications from the thirteenth century AC can still be seen on the Acropolis, including some foundations belonging to what must have been a palatial structure. The fortifications, known as the ‘Pelasgian’ walls (after the indigenous people believed to have built them before the arrival of the Greeks around 2000 BC), remained in use until the Persian Wars of 490-480 BC. One stretch behind the temple of Athena Nike appears to have been deliberately preserved in the Classical period.

There was a decline of Mycenaean society across the Greek world around the end of the twelfth century BC. Whether this was directly connected with the Trojan War (around 1184 BC), or the so-called Dorian Invasion thought to have taken place soon after this conflict, Athens does not appear to have succumbed to an attack. The Mycenaean royal family of Pylos is said to have taken refuge in Athens after their city’s fall to the Dorians. One of its members, Codros, became king of his adoptive city.

The collapse of Mycenaean civilization left Greece in political, economic and social decline, accompanied by loss of artistic skills, literacy and trade networks. The Mycenaean form of writing, known as Linear B, was completely forgotten, and the Greek alphabet did not emerge until the late eighth century BC as the new form of writing. At this time city states began to emerge throughout the Greek world, governed by oligarchies, or aristocratic councils. Thirteen kings ruled in Athens after Codros, until in 753 BC they were replaced by officials with a ten-year term, known as decennial archons, and in 683 BC by annually appointed eponymous archons.

Conflict between the oligarchs and the lower classes, many of whom had been reduced to slavery, led to a series of reforms that paved the way for the emergence of the world’s first true democracy. Around 620 BC the lawmaker Dracon set up wooden tablets on the Acropolis known as axones. These were inscribed with civil laws and punishments so harsh that the death penalty was prescribed even for minor crimes, giving rise to the term `draconian’ which is still used today. Dracon’s intervention did little to ensure order, prompting representatives of the nobles and lower classes in 594 BC to appoint the statesman and poet Solon as archon.

Solon terminated aristocratic rule, setting up a representational government where participation was determined not by lineage or bloodline, but wealth. He eliminated slavery based on debt, and restituted freedom and land to those who had been enslaved. Solon created a `Council of Four Hundred’ from equal numbers of representatives of the Ionian tribes to which the Athenians claimed to belong, and instituted four classes of citizenry.

Peisistratos, Solon’s younger cousin, became tyrant (tyrannos) of Athens in 545 BC. He ensured the Solonian constitution was respected and governed benevolently. After Peisistratos’ death, however, things took a negative turn and anti-Peisistratid sentiment grew. By 510 BC King Cleomenes of Sparta was asked to assist in deposing Peisistratos’ son Hippias. Hippias sought refuge in Persia at the court of King Darius.

Soon after, the aristocrat Cleisthenes promised to institute further reforms giving a more direct role to citizens in government. His reforms were passed in 508 BC, and democracy was established in Athens. A new `Council of Five Hundred’ (the Boule) replaced the ‘Council of Four Hundred’, with equal representation from the various tribes. Cleisthenes is also credited with instituting the system of ostracism, which ‘voted’ an individual considered dangerous to democracy into exile for ten years.

It is uncertain when the former Mycenaean citadel was transformed into a sacred precinct but by the late eighth century BC a modest temple (or perhaps more than one) stood on the plateau. The oldest and holiest cult image on the Acropolis was the statue of Athena Polias (Protectress of the City), a crude olive-wood figure, so old that Athenians of the Classical period believed it had either fallen from heaven or been made by Cecrops or Erichthonios. This sacred image of Athena was ritually ‘dressed’ every year in a peplos, a sacred robe, as part of the Panathenaic festival.

A temple is thought to have been built around 700 BC to the south of the later, Classical Erechtheion, to house the statue of Athena Polias. The first major building of which there are significant remains on the Acropolis was the so-called ‘Bluebeard Temple’, built in the Archaic period around 560 BC. The ‘Bluebeard Temple’ is thought by some to have stood to the south of the later Erechtheion. Ancient texts mention a mysterious building or precinct contemporary to the ‘Bluebeard Temple’, called the Hecatompedon, or ‘Hundred-footer’. Whatever this structure or place was, it gave its name to the principal room of the Classical Parthenon, perhaps because the later building occupies the same site.

With the expulsion of Hippias a new temple was built on the Acropolis, its foundations still visible to the south of the later Erechtheion. This building, the Archaios Naos, or ‘ancient temple’, is likely to have been deliberately commissioned around 506 BC as a replacement for the ‘Bluebeard Temple’.

The first Persian invasion of 490 BC saw the victory of the Athenians at the battle of Marathon against the forces of King Darius of Persia. The following year the elated Athenians leveled an area on the south side of the Acropolis and began construction of the Old Parthenon. A new gateway to the Acropolis was also commenced, known as the Old Propylaia.

This post-Marathonian building program on the Acropolis came to a violent end in 480 BC when Xerxes, son of King Darius, led a second Persian invasion of Greece. Athens had to be evacuated and Xerxes razed the city and buildings on the Acropolis. Under the command of Themistocles, the Athenians destroyed the Persian fleet in the battle of Salamis. Victory over the Persians was ensured after the battle of Plataea (479 BC), to the northwest of Athens, when a combined Greek army annihilated the Persians.

In the aftermath of the battle of Plataea, a vow was made by the victors never to rebuild the shrines that were destroyed in the war, preserving them instead as memorials for later generations.

Pericles, who was a general and statesman, came to power in Athens around 461 BC. He considered the oath of Plataea to have been fulfilled, as thirty years had elapsed from the Persian invasion, and proceeded to reconstruct the temples on the Acropolis. He gathered together the best architects and artists in the city and plans were drawn up to erect new buildings that would outshine those torn down by the Persians. The Periclean building programme enhanced the lower city with new monuments, such as the Temple of Hephaestus, also known as the Theseion, and the Painted Stoa or Poikile situated near the Agora (marketplace).

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